1. Lawmakers in Russia Call for Retaliation Against New U.S. Sanctions Foreign, Today

    The Kremlin said that news of the proposed American measures was “sad” and that relations between Moscow and Washington would be further damaged.

  2. House Approves Sweeping Sanctions Package Against Russia Foreign, Yesterday

    The bill limits the president’s ability to lift or suspend sanctions against Russia, North Korea and Iran.

  3. Manafort Talks With Senate Investigators About Meeting With Russians National, Yesterday

    Paul Manafort met with Intelligence Committee investigators to discuss the June 2016 meeting between a Russian lawyer and members of President Trump’s inner circle.

  4. To Punish Putin, Economic Sanctions Are Unlikely to Do the Trick Business, Yesterday

    Using economic penalties to achieve diplomatic goals has a poor track record when the target is powerful and autocratic, and workarounds exist.

  5. China and Russia Hold First Joint Naval Drill in the Baltic Sea Foreign, Yesterday

    As part of a budding military partnership, China and Russia hold joint military exercises in the strategic European sea for the first time, monitored by NATO.

  6. Jared Kushner’s Four Meetings With Russians Video, July 24

    In a statement to congressional investigators, Jared Kushner described four meetings he had with Russians during the Trump campaign and transition. He said there was no collusion.

  7. ‘I Did Not Collude,’ Kushner Says After Meeting Senate Investigators National, July 24

    Jared Kushner’s rare public comments about Russia were an attempt to steer the White House through a political storm. But they carried legal risk.

  8. Pardons and a Trump-Putin Private Chat Letters, July 24

    Readers are dismayed that a president might be able to pardon himself, and they speculate about what the two leaders discussed at the G-20 banquet.

  9. At Oil Producers’ Meeting, Tough Talk Fails to Convince Markets Business, July 24

    Markets appear to have shrugged off a raft of announcements meant to address concerns that production cuts agreed upon last year are not having an impact.

  10. For Trump and Putin, Sanctions Are a Setback Both Sought to Avoid Foreign, July 23

    The expansion of American sanctions against Russia can be viewed as a result of two world leaders’ overplaying their hands.

  11. Border Games: Russia’s Creeping Occupation Video, July 24

    The borders between Georgia and the disputed territory of South Ossetia are blurry. Georgians say the Russian military is using signs, fences and guard stations to take pieces of Georgian land, yard by yard.

  12. The Kook, ‘the Mooch’ and the Loot Editorial, July 24

    The communications problem in this administration is that no one cares about the truth.

  13. Anthony Scaramucci, New Communications Chief, Woos Trump on TV National, July 23

    Mr. Scaramucci, the hedge fund investor turned message strategist, took his tailored suits and butter-smooth style on his first official TV outing on Sunday.

  14. Mr. Trump’s Russian Base Beyond the Kremlin Editorial, July 24

    Émigrés in Brighton Beach who fled the Soviet Union don’t necessarily dislike Vladimir Putin and have a fondness for his friend in the White House.

  15. White House Signals Acceptance of Russia Sanctions Bill Foreign, July 23

    President Trump expressed anger at Republicans who abandoned him on the legislation and forced his hand.

  16. Congress Reaches Deal on Russia Sanctions, Setting Up Tough Choice for Trump Foreign, July 22

    White House officials acknowledge that the president would all but have to sign legislation punishing Russia for its election interference.

  17. Jared Kushner’s Got Too Many Secrets to Keep Ours Op Ed, July 22

    The president’s son-in-law is a security risk and shouldn’t be a senior White House adviser.

  18. Stakes for Exxon in Sanctions Case Go Far Beyond a $2 Million Fine Business, July 21

    The oil company, punished for violating sanctions against Russia, is fighting a wider threat to its reputation and the possibility of other sanctions to come.

  19. What Did Trump and Putin Tell Each Other? Editorial, July 21

    Only Mr. Trump — and the Russians — can know for sure.

  20. Russian Lawyer Who Met Donald Trump Jr. Once Represented Spy Agency Foreign, July 21

    Court documents show that Natalia V. Veselnitskaya, the lawyer who met with Donald Trump Jr., once represented the F.S.B., the spy service the succeeded the K.G.B.

  21. Will the Russians Hack Germany, Too? Op Ed, July 21

    They’ll probably try. But here’s why it won’t matter.

  22. Siemens Stops Turbine Sales to Russia in Sanctions Dispute Business, July 21

    The German company has accused a Russian customer of moving power generation machinery to the disputed territory of Crimea against its wishes.

  23. Exxon Mobil Fined for Violating Sanctions on Russia Business, July 20

    While Rex W. Tillerson, now the secretary of state, led the energy giant, “Exxon Mobil demonstrated reckless disregard for U.S. sanctions requirements,” the Treasury Department said.

  24. Is the News Media an ‘Existential’ Threat? Op Ed, July 20

    Dennis Prager, a thoughtful conservative, seems to think so.

  25. ‘The Daily’: An Oval Office Interview Podcasts, July 20

    Exclusive audio from The Times’s wide-ranging interview, in which Mr. Trump discusses Vladimir Putin, Jeff Sessions and James Comey.

  26. Listen to Our Exclusive Interview with Donald Trump Video, July 19

    In edited audio excerpts from an interview with New York Times reporters, President Trump discussed Jeff Sessions, Donald Trump Jr., Robert S. Mueller III and the newly disclosed conversation he had with Vladimir V. Putin.

  27. Trump and Putin Held a Second, Undisclosed, Private Conversation Foreign, July 18

    There is no official American record of the prolonged discussion between the two presidents on the sidelines of the Group of 20 summit meeting.

  28. What We Know About Donald Trump Jr.’s Russia Meeting Interactive, July 18

    President Trump’s eldest son was promised damaging information about Hillary Clinton before agreeing to the meeting.

  29. Finding Visual Poetry in Russia Lens, July 19

    Igor Posner returned to St. Petersburg looking for the “half-seen, half-recollected” moments that had stayed in his mind since he left Russia in the early 1990s.

  30. Finding Visual Poetry in Russia Multimedia/Photos, July 19

    Igor Posner returned to St. Petersburg looking for the “half-seen, half-recollected” moments that had stayed in his mind since he left Russia in the early 1990s.

  31. Finding Visual Poetry in Russia Slideshow, July 19

    Igor Posner returned to St. Petersburg looking for the “half-seen, half-recollected” moments that had stayed in his mind since he left Russia in the early 1990s.

  32. Houston Astros Star Carlos Correa Could Miss Eight Weeks Sports, July 19

    Correa, an All-Star shortstop who is batting .320 with 20 homers, tore a ligament in his left thumb taking a swing in Monday’s game against Seattle.

  33. That Devious Plot to ‘Zombify’ Russia: The Fidget Spinner Foreign, July 18

    State-run news outlets in Russia have identified fidget spinners as a potential threat to state security, saying the toys may be a foreign plot to influence young people.

  34. That Devious Plot to ‘Zombify’ Russia: The Fidget Spinner Foreign, July 18

    State-run news outlets in Russia have identified fidget spinners as a potential threat to state security, saying the toys are an attempt to influence young people.

  35. Guest List at Donald Trump Jr.’s Meeting With Russian Expands Again National, July 18

    Irakly Kaveladze, an American-based employee of Russian property developers, attended the meeting with President Trump’s son in June 2016, Mr. Kaveladze’s lawyer says.

  36. Russia Issues New Threats in Dispute Over Diplomatic Compounds Foreign, July 18

    Declaring its “patience is still running out,” Moscow reiterated that it reserved the right to retaliate against the United States for its seizure of diplomatic property.

  37. In Russia, Battle Between Rosneft and Private Firm Stirs Investment Worries Business, July 17

    The conflict comes as the overall economy stagnates amid sanctions and low oil prices, raising the specter of Russia’s elite fighting over a smaller pie.

  38. How German Condoms Funded the Russian Revolution Op Ed, July 17

    Lenin’s enemies accused him of taking money from Germany. That’s not quite right.

  39. A Russian Developer Helps Out the Kremlin on Occasion. Was He a Conduit to Trump? Foreign, July 16

    Aras Agalarov had developed a reputation as a fixer for the Kremlin’s toughest jobs. Did that include trying to pass dirt to Trump’s son and aides?...

  40. Russian Mansions: Retreats or Spy Nests? Video, July 17

    The Obama administration ordered Russian diplomats to leave two waterfront compounds in New York and Maryland. Now, Russia wants them back.

  41. Russia Isn’t Delivering for Donald Trump Editorial, July 15

    His bromance with Vladimir Putin hasn’t resulted in diplomatic gains.

  42. Game of Trump Op Ed, July 15

    You know nothing, Donald Trump. The Mad King brings Westeros to Washington.

  43. Reverence for Putin on the Right Buys Trump Cover National, July 14

    Conservatives spent years venerating President Putin. Now they seem willing to look the other way regarding evidence of Russian meddling in the 2016 election.

  44. Russia Warns U.S. It Could Expel Americans Over Diplomatic Dispute Foreign, July 14

    Russia wants the United States to reverse its decision to expel 35 Russians and block access to diplomatic sites over accusations of Russian meddling in the 2016 election.

  45. Trump Backed Off Putin Because ‘What Do You Do? End Up in a Fistfight?’ Foreign, July 13

    Speaking to reporters on Air Force One, the president offered his first extended account of the meeting he held with the Russian leader last week.

  46. Uber and Yandex, a Russian Ride-Hailing Rival, Opt to Share the Road Business, July 13

    The competitors have decided to stop battling for market share and instead operate jointly in a handful of Eastern European countries.

  47. Conspiracy or Coincidence? A Timeline Open to Interpretation National, July 12

    Evidence of a meeting between Donald Trump Jr. and a Russian lawyer has raised questions about interference in the 2016 election and whether the Trump campaign was involved. Here’s a rundown of last summer’s events, seen in the new light of re...

  48. 5 Who Killed Boris Nemtsov, Putin Foe, Sentenced in Russia Foreign, July 13

    The suspected organizers of the assassination of Mr. Nemtsov, a charismatic opposition leader and critic of President Vladimir V. Putin, may still be at large.

  49. Who Is Emin Agalarov, the Russian Pop Star Behind the Donald Trump Jr. Meeting? Culture, July 12

    The 37-year-old singer at the center of the email controversy is also the son of a billionaire real estate tycoon.

  50. All Roads Now Lead to Kushner Op Ed, July 13

    The president’s son-in-law has lots of explaining to do.

  51. Scions and Scoundrels Op Ed, July 13

    Donald Trump’s corruption is a family affair.

  52. Congress Wants to Punish Russia, but Can’t Dole Out the Punishment National, July 12

    Infighting has delayed sanctions against Moscow for election meddling, even as the cloud of Russia-tinged scandal darkens over President Trump.

  53. How a Russian Offer Got to Donald Trump Jr.’s Inbox Video, July 12

    The cast of characters that helped bring the bombshell email to Donald Trump Jr. includes a pop star, a publicist and a real estate tycoon.

  54. Trump Campaign Is Sued Over Leaked Emails Linked to Russians National, July 12

    The invasion of privacy suit accuses the Trump campaign and a top adviser of conspiring with Russia in its release of hacked data that exposed the plaintiffs’ personal details to the public.

  55. Drip, Drip, Drip: Donald Trump Jr.’s Emails Letters, July 12

    Another sampling of reader responses to the growing scandal.

  56. Rancor at White House as Russia Story Refuses to Let the Page Turn National, July 11

    Every time the president tries to put the furor behind him, more disclosures thrust it back to the fore, and people close to him are anonymously blaming one another.

  57. Natalia Veselnitskaya, Lawyer Who Met Trump Jr., Seen as Fearsome Moscow Insider Foreign, July 11

    Ms. Veselnitskaya has long been counted on to win high-profile cases that matter to the Kremlin and to one well-connected official in particular.

  58. Follow Donald Trump Jr.’s Russia Email Trail Video, July 11

    Donald Trump Jr. received an email on June 3, 2016, promising dirt on Hillary Clinton. The information was described as being part of Russia's support for his father’s presidential bid. His reply? “I love it.”...

  59. Did Donald Jr. Break the Law? Op Ed, July 11

    His meeting with a Russian lawyer raises many legal issues, but it’s still too early to say whether any lines were crossed.

  60. Russian Dirt on Clinton? ‘I Love It,’ Donald Trump Jr. Said National, July 11

    Email exchanges reviewed by The Times offer a detailed unspooling of how an eager Donald Trump Jr. came to meet with a Kremlin-connected lawyer.

  61. Read the Emails on Donald Trump Jr.’s Russia Meeting Interactive, July 11

    The text of email correspondence setting up a meeting between Donald Trump Jr. and a Kremlin-connected lawyer in chronological order.

  62. The Trumps Embraced a Russian Plot Op Ed, July 11

    The email exchange with Donald Trump Jr. should have led him to call the F.B.I. and report a foreign effort to interfere in the U.S. election. Instead, he embraced the plot.

  63. North Koreans in Russia Work ‘Basically in the Situation of Slaves’ Foreign, July 11

    North Korea, desperate for foreign currency, has sent tens of thousands of its citizens to Russia, where they are welcomed as “fast, cheap and reliable” laborers.

  64. Donald Trump Jr. and the Culture of Dishonesty Editorial, July 11

    As disheartening as the president’s record of dishonesty is, his team’s willingness to share in it is worse.

  65. The Trumps Embraced a Russian Plot Kristof, July 11

    The email exchange with Donald Trump Jr. should have led him to call the F.B.I. and report a foreign effort to interfere in the U.S. election. Instead, he embraced the plot.

  66. When the Kremlin Says ‘Adoptions,’ It Means ‘Sanctions’ Foreign, July 10

    A meeting between President Trump’s son and a Russian lawyer linked to the Russian government touched on one of Vladimir V. Putin’s key foreign policy goals.

  67. When Trump Met Putin Op Ed, July 11

    WARNING! Your computer may be at risk.

  68. Bolshoi Denies Gay Theme Forced Postponing of Nureyev Ballet Culture, July 10

    The Bolshoi said the show needed work, but the cancellation prompted immediate accusations that the theater was bowing to Kremlin pressure.

  69. How a Pageant Led to a Trump Son’s Meeting With a Russian Lawyer National, July 10

    Bringing the Miss Universe pageant to Moscow in 2013 provided the Trump family an entree into Russia and partners with Kremlin connections.

  70. Germany’s Siemens Says Russian Partner Violated Crimea Sanctions Business, July 10

    The incident threatens to strain relations between the two countries and demonstrates how energy has become a weapon in Russia’s struggle with Ukraine.

  71. Trump and Putin: A Scorecard Letters, July 10

    Readers assess the president’s European trip.

  72. Truce in Part of Syria, Announced by Trump, Survives First Day Foreign, July 10

    The cease-fire, near the Syria border with Jordan and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, was holding 24 hours after it took effect Sunday.

  73. The Remains of the Romanovs Op Ed, July 10

    Nearly a century after Czar Nicholas and his family were murdered, their fate still haunts Russia.

  74. Trump’s Son Met With Russian Lawyer After Being Promised Damaging Information on Clinton National, July 9

    Donald Trump Jr. is said to have arranged the meeting with the Kremlin-linked lawyer during the campaign after he was told he would be provided with details about Hillary Clinton.

  75. Putin Meets His Progeny Op Ed, July 10

    Trump is full of lies and Putin is full of tricks. Who to believe?...

  76. The Spoils, and Profits, of Conflict Editorial, July 10

    It is not new to see private companies given roles in overseas hot spots, but Russia’s deals in Syria seem particularly risky.

  77. At G-20, Beethoven Sends a Mixed Message to Trump Culture, July 9

    The Ninth, and its “Ode to Joy” finale, were featured in a concert in front of world leaders on Friday, but the work’s meaning is far from clear.

  78. Trump Sows Confusion Over Russian Hacking Video, July 9

    After his meeting with President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia at the Group of 20 summit on Friday, President Trump sent mixed messages about Russia's meddling in the 2016 presidential election.

  79. Australian Journalist’s Trump Teardown Goes Viral Amid Interest in G-20 National, July 9

    The video’s popularity emphasizes how viral videos have become increasingly political, and that interest in gatherings of world leaders is broadening.

  80. ‘Time to Move Forward’ on Russia, Trump Says, as Criticism Intensifies National, July 9

    Mr. Trump tried to put the matter of election meddling behind him after meeting with Russia’s president, but found himself under searing criticism from both parties.

  81. Tillerson Says Russia Must Restore Ukraine Territory, or Sanctions Stay Foreign, July 9

    The secretary of state, on a visit to Kiev, appeared to set the same high bar for sanctions relief that the Obama administration did.

  82. Writers on the Right and Left React to Trump in Europe National, July 9

    Read about how the other side thinks: Writers from across the political spectrum respond to President Trump’s speech in Poland, and more.

  83. Trump Team Met With Lawyer Linked to Kremlin During Campaign National, July 8

    The meeting at Trump Tower in Manhattan was arranged by Donald Trump’s eldest son and was attended by Paul Manafort and Jared Kushner.

  84. Russia Crows Over Putin’s Meeting With Trump Foreign, July 8

    There was relief that if short on concrete deals, the talks seemed to halt the downward spiral in relations and lack of contact between the two countries.

  85. Combating a Real Threat to Election Integrity Editorial, July 8

    States can take steps to make voting systems more secure from hackers.

  86. Trump Gave Putin Exactly What He Wanted Op Ed, July 8

    For decades, Russian leaders have had to face questions about human rights from their American counterparts. Not anymore.

  87. Vlad, the Trump Impaler Op Ed, July 8

    The Grim Reaper tries compassion on for size and Trump fails the Adlai test.

  88. Trump Says He Talked Trade With Theresa May and Still Plans to Visit London Foreign, July 8

    No further details on the trip were forthcoming, but the president said he and the British prime minister held “tremendous talks” on trade at the G-20 summit meeting.

  89. Trump Questions Putin on Election Meddling at Eagerly Awaited Encounter Foreign, July 7

    The meeting turned into a bright spot for Mr. Trump at the G-20 gathering, where the United States is finding itself increasingly isolated on other issues.

  90. U.S., Russia and Jordan Reach Deal for Cease-Fire in Part of Syria Foreign, July 7

    Moscow has assured the United States that the government of President Bashar al-Assad of Syria will abide by the agreement, a State Department official said.

  91. Even Now, Does Mr. Trump Get It on Hacking? Editorial, July 7

    The president, meeting with his Russian counterpart, seems too eager to put the hacking issue behind him.

  92. Putin Meets Tons of Trumps Op Ed, July 7

    The president goes abroad, and his personas multiply.

  93. Trump and Putin Meet Face to Face Video, July 7

    President Trump spoke with President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia at the G-20 summit in Hamburg, Germany.

  94. Did Putin Have Trump for Lunch? Op Ed, July 7

    President Trump praises Russia and assaults the press.

  95. Trump Presses Putin on Russian Meddling in U.S. Election Foreign, July 7

    Mr. Putin denied Russian interference, and the leaders did not dwell on the subject. The meeting lasted far longer than expected.

  96. Did Putin Have Trump for Lunch? Kristof, July 7

    President Trump praises Russia and assaults the press.

  97. Russia Frees Aleksei Navalny, Opposition Leader, After 25 Days Foreign, July 7

    The anticorruption crusader was released from prison a day after the authorities raided his offices nationwide to thwart a protest rally.

  98. Trump Misleads on Russian Meddling: Why 17 Intelligence Agencies Don’t Need to Agree National, July 6

    The president was correct that only four of the 17 intelligence agencies concluded that Russia interfered in the election — but they were the only four that investigated the issue.

  99. Trump and Putin Meet in Testosterone-Fueled Face-Off Op Ed, July 6

    Two leaders who have staked their appeal on projecting masculinity will cross paths on Friday with the whole world looking on.

  100. For Russia, Trump-Putin Meeting Is a Sure Winner Foreign, July 6

    In Moscow’s view, whatever Mr. Trump does, whether cooperating with the Russian leader or stonewalling him, he will come out looking the weaker party.

  101. Trump, in Poland, Asks if West Has the ‘Will to Survive’ Foreign, July 6

    He said Western civilization was at risk of decline, bringing a message about “radical Islamic terrorism” and “the creep of government bureaucracy” to Warsaw.

  102. Donnie and Vlad: A Love Story Op Ed, July 6

    What Cold War? There’s nothing but heat here.

  103. Thousands Protest in Hamburg as Trump Meets With Merkel Before G-20 Foreign, July 6

    President Trump met with the German chancellor after delivering a major speech in Poland where he asked if the West had the “will to survive.”...

  104. Hacker Who Aided Russian Intelligence Is Sentenced to 2 Years Foreign, July 6

    The hacker, Vladimir Anikeyev, admitted his guilt in illegally gaining access to the private data of a number of targets, including high-ranking officials, according to news reports.

  105. A Cold War Summit Offers Lessons for Trump Before Putin Meeting Foreign, July 5

    A meeting of President John F. Kennedy and Nikita S. Khrushchev in 1961 points to the hazards of walking into such a session without clear strategic goals.

  106. Trump Aides’ Biggest Worry About Europe Trip: Meeting With Putin Foreign, July 5

    The highly anticipated conversation poses risks for the president, who faces a web of investigations into his campaign’s possible links to Russia.

  107. Russia Deploys a Potent Weapon in Syria: The Profit Motive Foreign, July 5

    The Kremlin is rewarding private security contractors with oil and mineral rights in territory they secure from the Islamic State.

  108. Dutch to Try Suspects in ’14 Downing of Malaysia Airlines Jet Over Ukraine Foreign, July 5

    Prosecutors have not yet identified the suspects or described how they would be tried, but it is unlikely any of them will be extradited.

  109. Ignoring International Warrants, Sudan’s Leader Says He’ll Visit Moscow Foreign, July 3

    The invitation was seen by the Sudanese government as a sign that other countries, including the United States, are moving to ease Sudan’s isolation.

  110. Will Russia’s Only Opposition Leader Become the Next Putin? Op Ed, July 3

    Aleksei Navalny may be unwittingly serving Vladimir Putin’s interests.

  111. The Hijacked American Presidency Editorial, July 3

    A madman and his legislative minions are holding America hostage.

  112. Trump przyjedzie do Polski pełnej niepokoju Op Ed, July 2

    W Polsce następuje erozja demokracji. Czy to przeszkadza prezydentowi USA?...

  113. In Russia’s Far East, a Fledgling Las Vegas for Asia’s Gamblers Foreign, July 1

    At a time when few Chinese investors want to take a risk on Russia, a new casino in a forest, 4,000 miles east of Moscow, beckons deep-pocketed Asians.

  114. Edward Kline, ‘Silent Partner’ in Aiding Soviet Dissidents, Dies at 85 Foreign, June 29

    Mr. Kline helped to shepherd Andrei D. Sakharov’s memoirs into worldwide distribution and set up a publishing house in New York to print books that were banned by the Soviet authorities.

  115. Trump to Meet With Putin at G-20 Gathering Next Week Foreign, June 29

    The White House would not say whether the issue of Russia’s meddling in last year’s election would be directly addressed at the meeting.

  116. Hacks Raise Fear Over N.S.A.’s Hold on Cyberweapons Business, June 28

    Hackers in two global attacks have used cyberweapons stolen from a dangerous collection that had been amassed by the agency.

  117. 5 Convicted in Killing of Boris Nemtsov, Russian Opposition Leader Foreign, June 29

    Mr. Nemtsov’s family called the investigation and prosecution a charade, and said the organizers of the assassination had not been brought to justice.

  118. Ukraine Cyberattack Was Meant to Paralyze, not Profit, Evidence Shows Foreign, June 28

    Pinpointing the initial targets of the assault — Ukrainian accountants who use a tax preparation software required by the government — was a major clue.

  119. Daily Report: When Ransomware Isn’t After a Ransom Business, June 29

    The cyberattack that started in Ukraine and went global didn’t seem like an effort focused on making money.

  120. Trump Campaign Chief’s Firm Got $17 Million From Pro-Russia Party National, June 27

    A Ukrainian political party tied to Russia had paid President Trump’s campaign chairman for help branding itself as warming toward the European Union.

  121. U.S. Has Seen Chemical Weapons Activity in Syria, Pentagon Says Foreign, June 27

    The Defense Department detailed the activity after a White House statement warning Syria against an attack. Syria and its Russian patrons rejected the accusation.

  122. 3 CNN Journalists Resign After Retracted Story on Trump Ally Business, June 26

    It was the latest in a series of embarrassing episodes at CNN, which has a contentious relationship with President Trump.

  123. Tweeting, Not Leading, the Response to Russian Hacking Editorial, June 27

    The Obama administration didn’t do enough to punish Russia for its election interference. But what is President Trump doing?...

  124. By Criticizing Obama, Trump Contradicts His Own Comments on Russian Meddling National, June 26

    President Trump has refused to acknowledge that Russia interfered in the 2016 election, but he has blamed his predecessor for not responding to that interference.